Ainalyze tarafından tanınan hastalıklar

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis)

It occurs as a result of damage to nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that allow muscles to move. When motor neurons (nerve cells that give orders to the muscles) cannot send impulses to the muscles, weakness begins in the muscles.

Arytenoid Subluxation

An arytenoid subluxation or dislocation is a rare laryngeal injury resulting from airway instrumentation or direct trauma to the cricoarytenoid joint that results in partial (subluxation) or complete (dislocation) displacement of the arytenoid cartilage at the cricoarytenoid joint.

Carsinoma in situ

Cancer in situ / carcinoma in situ is a term used by pathologist physicians and describes the condition in which the cells turn into cancer cells but remain confined to the mucous layer and have not yet spread anywhere. Cancer is very superficial in the mucous layer, and has not reached the lymph (white blood) and blood vessels. Therefore, it does not have the opportunity to spread to distant regions. On examination, the lesion at this stage is seen in the vocal cord or other parts of the larynx as a different color from the other parts of the mucosa, sometimes red and slightly raised. However, carcinoma in situ can also be seen in the area adjacent to obvious cancer areas in the larynx and in the transition area with healthy mucosa.

DISH Syndrome

Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) syndrome is a disease that occurs especially after the age of 50 and is characterized by widespread calcification or new bone formation on the anterior-lateral sides of the spine. DISH syndrome especially affects the neck region and causes difficulty in swallowing new bone in the form of wedges in the anterior region of the spine. Neck, back and waist pains are common.

Epiglottis Carcinoma

Supraglottic carcinoma is a malignant tumor on the glottis. It is a form of laryngeal carcinoma.

Fibroma (Larynx)

As a result of insufficient blood supply to the body tissues, there is a nutritional disorder in the tissues in that area. Tissues with impaired nutrition die and turn black. Sometimes germs (bacteria) can cause infections.

GERD (Reflux)

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) is caused by stomach contents backing up into the esophagus. In this case, gastric juice with reflux may also contain foods mixed with acid, pepsin, and bile salts. A burning sensation behind the chest may radiate to the back and throat. This burning begins 30 minutes after meals and increases with exercise and leaning forward. In addition, it manifests itself with symptoms such as excessive belching, indigestion, prolonged coughing, vomiting, choking sensation at night, back pain, bitter and sour water in the mouth, bad smells in the mouth, tooth decay, chronic pharyngitis, burning sensation in the throat, and hoarseness.


Granuloma is a medical condition defined by noncancerous inflammation of tissue. In general, it covers only a small amount of tissue, and the person who has it usually experiences no symptoms.

Hypopharyngeal Cancer

Cancer of the lower pharynx (cancer of the hypopharynx) is a malignant tumor that develops from the layer called the mucosa that covers the surface of one of these three regions.

Cyst (Larynx)

As a result of the obstruction of the mouth of the glands that produce mucus, fluid-filled vesicles are formed. These sacs are called cysts.

Chondroma (Larynx)

Laryngeal chondrosarcomas are very rare tumors, constituting approximately 1% of all laryngeal malignancies, and frequently involve the cricoid cartilage. They have a good prognosis. Surgery is the first choice in the treatment of the tumor, and partial or total laryngectomy can be performed depending on the size, location and histological grade of the tumor.

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease, also known as Parkinson's disease or tremor palsy, is one of the most common diseases of the central nervous system. As the neurodegenerative disease progresses, certain nerve cells in the brain that produce the neurotransmitter dopamine die.

Nasopharyngeal Cancer

Cancers that occur in the nasopharynx area are called nasopharyngeal cancer. It is among the most common types of cancer. Benign tumors and malignant tumors can occur in the nasopharynx region.

Progressive Bulbar Paralysis

They are progressive forms of bulbar paralysis involving the speech and swallowing muscles. The nerves that control these functions are located in the lower part of the eye, in the region called the bulbus, hence it is called bulbar palsy. The limb muscles may also be affected later on. PBP affects about a quarter of people diagnosed with ALS, and involvement of both upper and lower motor neurons is evident.

Larex Cancer

The symptoms of laryngeal cancer are mainly hoarseness and changes in voice quality. However, in order for such symptoms to occur, the tumor must either arise above the vocal cords or arise in a different region and progress to the vocal cords.

Intubation Granuloma

It is a benign growth of granulation tissue in the larynx or trachea resulting from tissue trauma due to endotracheal intubation. This medical condition is described as a common late complication of tracheal intubation caused by irritation of the mucosal tissue of the airway, particularly during insertion or removal of the patient's intubation tube.

Contact Pachydermia

Pachyderma literally means "elephant skin". It is used in laryngology to indicate rough or thick mucosa. It is most commonly seen in the interarytenoid region and is thought to be indicative of acid reflux or sometimes chronic bacterial infection. Although the underlying cause of pachyderma is (for example, chronic inflammation from acid reflux or chronic bacterial laryngitis), it typically does not affect the voice. In such a situation, the true vocal cords themselves appear intensely red.


Hyperesthesia refers to the increased sensitivity of any of your senses such as sight, sound, touch, and smell. It can affect only one or all of the senses. Hyperalgesia. A stimulus triggers increased or hypersensitivity to pain. allodynia. Usually a non-painful stimulus suddenly triggers pain.


Laryngocele of Morgagni sac (ventriculus laryngis) is a lateral hernia-like protrusion. It can be congenital or acquired and in most cases causes swelling that can be felt from the outside of the neck.


Leukoplakia is hyperkeratosis of the mucous membranes or skin of the lips, which may be potentially dysplastic.

Medial Neck Cyst

Median neck cyst is a benign, cystic tumor of the neck. In the root of the tongue, it is also called a Bochdalek cyst.


Unilateral inflammation of the vocal folds, reddening and thickening of the vocal folds, classically in the context of laryngeal tuberculosis. A subtype, monocorditis vasomotorica, is caused by increased vascular permeability (e.g. hormonal during menstruation). There is submucosal capillary bleeding.

Mutation Fistula Voice

Term for a sustained high pitch of the voice due to the absence of sound refraction despite complete growth of the larynx. Local, psychological or hormonal factors are possible causes. It is treated with speech therapy, hormone therapy if necessary, and psychotherapy to lower the pitch of the voice.

Nervus Laryngeus Superior Laesio

The superior laryngeal nerve is a mixed nerve branch of the vagus nerve. The outer branch of the superior laryngeal nerve may be injured during thyroidectomy as it passes just behind the superior thyroid artery. However, vagus nerve damage is more common during neck dissection or endarterectomy and during cervical spine surgeries. Superior laryngeal nerve neuralgia, if it occurs, is extremely rare. A malfunction in the nerve, due to a lack of sensitivity in the pharyngeal region, leads to swallowing disorders, which often manifests as aspiration.

Nervus laryngeus superior neuralgia

Laryngeal superior neuralgia is nerve pain (neuralgia) of the upper laryngeal nerve (Nervus laryngeus superior). It manifests itself as aching pain in the upper larynx region, which can spread to the ear area during swallowing, coughing and speaking.


When you have a fluency disorder, it means you have trouble speaking fluently or fluently. You may say all or part of the word multiple times, or pause awkwardly between words. This is known as stuttering. You can speak quickly and mix words together or say "uh" often. This is called clutter. These changes in speech sounds are called fluency. Many people have a little fluency in their speech. But if you have a fluent speech disorder, you will experience a lot of fluency when speaking. For you, speaking and being understood can be a daily struggle.

Orofacial Dyspraxia

Verbal dyspraxia (also called orofacial or cheek-facial) is a disorder of tongue, lip, jaw, and palate coordination that prevents the correct conversion of sounds into words. The child understands the language very well and knows what he wants to say and what he wants to say, but the problem is that he cannot do it even though there is no abnormality or paralysis in the orofacial muscle complex


Vocal cord papilloma is a benign lesion of the larynx (larynx) and vocal cords. Treatment of papilloma is quite difficult due to its frequent recurrence. Multiple endoscopic airway examination and surgical treatment as needed may be required. Today, vocal cord papilloma can be treated with lasers that can be used specifically for papilloma without damaging the underlying healthy tissues.


Hypofunctional dysphonia with a weak voice without organic signs, but with a history of frequent laryngeal disorders. Psychogenic, structural and functional factors are discussed as causes (eg general physical weakness such as myasthenia). It is treated with speech therapy and, if necessary, voice rest.

Phonation Nodules

A vocal cord nodule, also called a crying nodule in children or a singer's nodule in singers, is a limited thickening of both vocal cords. Vocal nodules typically cause hoarseness. The voice may also sound rough or without tone. Someone with vocal cord nodules can no longer hold tones as long as usual.

Psychogenic Aphonia

Aphonia means lack of voice. Psychogenic aphonia is a mental voice disorder in which the voice completely loses its tone. Those affected can then just whisper or "breathe", which is very sad. In addition to the internal emergency, there are significant communication difficulties in daily life or work that may mean a normal life is no longer possible. Psychologically induced intonation is now also called dissociative dysphonia.

Psychogenic Dysphonia

Dysphonia can be translated as "bad voice" and is a Greek word for voice disorder. In the case of dysphonia, the formation of sounds (phonation) or vocal articulation is restricted. The causes are functional disorders or diseases in the larynx region, which may have organic or psychological causes. In the case of psychogenic dysphonia, the causes are psychological. The voice and psyche are closely linked, so psychosocial and psychosomatic influences such as stress, emotional stress and traumatic experiences can lead to voice problems or voice changes. A biopsychosocial voice disorder is also sometimes referred to to clarify the holistic nature of the symptoms. In speech therapy and sound therapy (phoniatrics), a distinction is also made between dysphonia, in which the voice completely loses its tone, and aphonia.

Psychogene Microphone

Psychogenic pain is not an official diagnostic term. It is used to describe a pain disorder attributed to psychological factors. Things like beliefs, fears, and strong emotions can cause, increase, or prolong pain.

Reinke's Edema

Reinke's edema (polypoid corditis), voice strands just below the surface epithelium with accumulation of dark, jelly-like fluid It is a vocal cord disease.

Recurrent paralysis

Recurrent laryngeal paralysis from insufficiency of the laryngeal nerve paralysis of the inner larynx muscles.

Rhinolalia aperta

Rhinolalia aperta, posterior nasopharynx in the region of the palatine arches of the exit due to incomplete or insufficient closure an origin of speech (rhinolalia) nasal mixture.

Rhinolalia clausa

Rhinolalia clausa is a nasal admixture of speech (rhinolalia) caused by the lack of patency of the nasal passages.

Rhinolalia mixta

Rhinolalia mixta is a nasal mix of speech (rhinolalia) caused by the lack of motility of the velum palatinum. This inactivity leads to inadequacies in the opening and closing of the nasopharynx. Thus, the air column in the nasopharynx usually resonates during speech production.

Sängerstimme (Singer Voice)

If a singing voice gradually or suddenly is no longer flexible and there is a deterioration in the usual and necessary performance, we are talking about a dizody. Singers who can no longer perform their usual vocal performances often become stressed and panicked. This is often associated with existential fears.


Excessive or defective use of “s” sounds in speech

Spasmodic Dysphonia

Spasmodic dysphonia is a form of dystonia. Dystonia is a neurological disease characterized by involuntary muscle contractions (spasms). When the vocal cords or the muscles of the larynx show these involuntary contractions, we speak of spasmodic dysphonia.

Vocal Fold Carcinoma

Vocal cord carcinoma is a malignant tumor in the vocal cord region. It is a form of laryngeal carcinoma.

Vocal Cord Polyp

A vocal cord polyp or vocal cord polyp is a benign tumor that sits on the vocal cord.


Synechia are connective tissue adhesions or adhesions of two layers of tissue that are normally separated from each other.

Pocket Folds Hperplasia

Hyperplasia, unlike hypertrophy, is the enlargement of a tissue or organ due to an increase in the number of cells. The opposite of hyperplasia is hypoplasia.

Pocket Wrinkled Voice

The vocal cords are not adducted during vocalization, but when pocket folds are activated by expiratory airflow, it is called pocketfold sound. Mostly, irregular oscillating movements can be easily observed stroboscopically. The resulting vocal sound is very rough and muffled, and too much in character, volume and pitch. cannot be modulated. During pocket fold phonation, the vocal folds cannot be observed stroboscopically as they are optically obscured by irregular vibrating pocket folds.

Vallecular Cyst

Vallecular cysts are typically found on the base of the tongue of affected infants at birth. Some believe that the cyst develops due to obstruction of a small salivary gland, while others believe that the cyst is a variant of the thyroglossal duct cyst. Vallecular cysts are rare and typically not associated with other anomalies or syndromes.

Velopharyngeal Plastic

Velopharyngeal insufficiency is the inability to close the velopharyngeal opening during speech. The most common cause of velopharyngeal insufficiency is secondary cleft palate and submucous cleft palate cases.

Aging Voice

The aging process of the human body does not end with sound. Actual age plays less of a role here than biological aging. The change in voice should be viewed in conjunction with an aging reduction in the performance of the larynx, respiratory system and mouth muscles in voice production, as well as with altered movement control of the organs involved. The process of deterioration of speech and singing voice can be accelerated by pronounced diseases and hormonal changes. The old sound becomes dull, less sonorous and less capable of modulation. The tonal range is also reduced, this is especially noticeable when singing. In addition, the sound is often brittle or high-pitched. Age sound signs can be stronger or almost imperceptible, and many factors play a role. It should always be kept in mind that this is part of the aging person's life cycle. Hoarseness should in any case be clarified by an ENT specialist, because changes other than age can also cause the same manifestation of hoarseness.

Central Laryngeal Movement

Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare neurodegenerative disorder and it can be difficult to distinguish a parkinsonian variant from Parkinson's disease (PD). Although laryngeal dysfunction is associated with reduced life expectancy and quality of life, major Systematic reviews of laryngeal dysfunction in cohorts are lacking.

Brain Tumor

Cells that grow uncontrollably in the skull area are called brain tumors. These tumors may form in the brain or grow into the skull from the tissue around the brain. Tumors that are located in the skull may show distinct symptoms depending on the increase in pressure. The main symptoms of brain tumors are: severe headache, nausea and vomiting.

Balbuties (stuttering)

It is a speech disorder that begins in childhood and involves frequent and significant problems with normal fluency and flow of speech.


Diplophony is caused by quasi-periodic variations in the vibration of the vocal cords (vocal cord); It is a disorder in which the voice is produced in two different tones at the same time.


Dysphonia is a general term that covers the description of any problem with sound production, including a negative change in the quality of the sound produced by the vocal tract; increased effort or fatigue to make a sound, and pain or discomfort with speaking and singing.

Dysplastic Dysphonia

Focal, adult-onset larynx (larynx) muscles dystonia. Due to spasm in the larynx muscles, interruptions in the voice occur during speech.


Dysarthria is the condition of insufficient or no muscle movement related to the speech mechanism. There is a disorder at any point of the motor system between the cortex and the muscles involved in speech. In cases where the larynx is involved, the voice is breathy.

Funtional dysphonia

It is a type of dysphonia.

Hyperfunctional dysphonia

It is a type of dysphonia.

Hypofunctional Dysphonia

It is a type of dysphonia.

Hypotony Dysphonia

It is muscle fragility. It is the decrease in the tone of the muscles as a result of cerebellar dysfunction. Body muscles are lax, devoid of normal tone.


Dysody is a functional voice disorder of the singing and singer's voice, also called singing disorder. It is associated with a disturbance in the sound of the voice and/or a limitation in vocal performance and flexibility.


The sound is called the sound conversion of the air coming out of the lungs by the vocal cords. Laryngitis occurs as a result of inflammation or irritation of the larynx, which is popularly called the larynx or voice box.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a lung disease that can be explained as the inability to easily exhale the air taken into the lungs by breathing. Two processes that cause this condition are chronic bronchitis and emphysema.


The New Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) is a virus that was first identified on January 13, 2020, as a result of research conducted in a group of patients who developed respiratory symptoms (fever, cough, shortness of breath) in Wuhan Province, China, in late December. Although it has been reported that there may be asymptomatic cases, their rate is unknown. The most common symptoms are fever, cough and shortness of breath. In severe cases, pneumonia, severe respiratory failure, renal failure and death may develop.


Asthma is a chronic disease that blocks the airways and makes it difficult to breathe. In asthma, the smooth muscles around the airway contract in response to triggers such as allergens, smoke, cold weather or exercise, and the production of a sticky secretion called mucus increases; This causes the airway to narrow. Asthma attacks that develop in response to various triggers can cause wheezing, shortness of breath, and coughing.


The bronchi are large and medium-sized airways that carry the air we breathe from outside to the alveoli, where the blood is oxygenated. Bronchitis is the inflammation of these bronchi due to a number of factors. During this inflammation, the layer called mucous, which covers the bronchi from the inside, becomes edematous and thickens and produces more sticky fluid called mucus; as a result, air cannot easily reach the alveoli.


Pertussis is a rapidly developing contagious respiratory infection disease.


Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia.

Lung Cancer

Lung cancer is a type of cancer that begins in the lungs. Your lungs are two spongy organs in your chest that take in oxygen when you inhale and release carbon dioxide when you exhale. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide.


Dermatofibromas are small, harmless growths that appear on the skin. These growths, or papules, can develop anywhere on the body, but they are most common on the arms, lower legs, and upper back. Dermatofibromas most commonly occur in adults and can affect people of any ethnicity.


Melanoma, the most serious type of skin cancer, develops in the cells (melanocytes) that produce melanin — the pigment that gives your skin its color. Melanoma can also form in your eyes and, rarely, inside your body, such as in your nose or throat.

Giant congenital melanocytic nevus

Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is a skin condition characterized by an abnormally dark, noncancerous skin patch (nevus) that is composed of pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. It is present from birth (congenital) or is noticeable soon after birth.

Seborrheic Keratosis

A seborrheic keratosis (seb-o-REE-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is a common noncancerous (benign) skin growth. People tend to get more of them as they get older. Seborrheic keratoses are usually brown, black or light tan. The growths (lesions) look waxy or scaly and slightly raised.

Pigmented Benign Keratosis

Pigmented skin lesions are very common, and almost all patients have a number of pigmented lesions on their skin. Considering their different characteristics, it is useful to distinguish these lesions into melanocytic, keratinocytic, vascular, and reactive lesions.

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is the second most common form of skin cancer, characterized by abnormal, accelerated growth of squamous cells. When caught early, most SCCs are curable.

Vascular Lesion

Vascular lesions are relatively common abnormalities of the skin and underlying tissues, more commonly known as birthmarks. There are three major categories of vascular lesions: Hemangiomas, Vascular Malformations, and Pyogenic Granulomas.

Basal Cell Carcinoma

Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that most often develops on areas of skin exposed to the sun, such as the face. On brown and Black skin, basal cell carcinoma often looks like a bump that's brown or glossy black and has a rolled border. Basal cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer.

Actinic Keratosis

An actinic keratosis (ak-TIN-ik ker-uh-TOE-sis) is a rough, scaly patch on the skin that develops from years of sun exposure. It's often found on the face, lips, ears, forearms, scalp, neck or back of the hands.

Myocarditis (Heart Muscle Inflammation)

Myocarditis is inflammation of the heart muscle (myocardium). The inflammation can reduce the heart's ability to pump blood. Myocarditis can cause chest pain, shortness of breath, and rapid or irregular heart rhythms (arrhythmias). Infection with a virus is one cause of myocarditis.

Heart Murmurs

Heart murmurs are unique heart sounds produced when blood flows across a heart valve or blood vessel. This occurs when turbulent blood flow creates a sound loud enough to hear with a stethoscope. Turbulent blood flow is not smooth. The sound differs from normal heart sounds by their characteristics. For example, heart murmurs may have a distinct pitch, duration and timing. The major way health care providers examine the heart on physical exam is heart auscultation; another clinical technique is palpation, which can detect by touch when such turbulence causes the vibrations called cardiac thrill.

Myocardial Infarction

A myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to the coronary artery of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle. The most common symptom is chest pain or discomfort which may travel into the shoulder, arm, back, neck or jaw.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is an eye condition that can cause vision loss and blindness in people who have diabetes. It affects blood vessels in the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue in the back of your eye). If you have diabetes, it's important to get a comprehensive dilated eye exam at least once a year.